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The effect of electromagnetic and magnetic fields on water and UHDs
The effect of electromagnetic and magnetic fields on water and UHDs

List of publications devoted to studies of the effect of electromagnetic emission on physical-chemical properties of water and ultrahigh dilutions of various substances. The table will be updated over time.

Description Reference


A weak magnetic field changes the structure of water, as evidenced by the alteration of the refractive index

D'Emilia E, Ledda M, Foletti A, et al. Weak-field H3O+ ion cyclotron resonance alters water refractive index. Electromagn Biol Med. 2017;36(1):55-62. doi:10.1080/15368378.2016.1181082


The heat capacity of water is reduced after exposure to a magnetic field

Sronsri C, U-yen K, Sittipol W. Analyses of vibrational spectroscopy, thermal property and salt solubility of magnetized water. J Mol Liq. 2021;323:114613. doi:10.1016/j.molliq.2020.114613


The pH and electrical conductivity of water are increased after exposure to a magnetic field

Wu T, Brant JA. Magnetic field effects on pH and electrical conductivity: Implications for water and wastewater treatment. Environ Eng Sci. 2020;37(11):717-727. doi:10.1089/ees.2020.0182


A magnetic field breaks up larger water clusters and induces the formation of smaller ones with stronger hydrogen bonds

Toledo EJL, Ramalho TC, Magriotis ZM. Influence of magnetic field on physical–chemical properties of the liquid water: Insights from experimental and theoretical models. J Mol Struct. 2008;888(1-3):409-415. doi:10.1016/j.molstruc.2008.01.010


The “magnetic memory of water” is a combination of disturbances at the gas-liquid interface and the formation of reactive oxygen species

Colic M, Morse D. The elusive mechanism of the magnetic ‘memory’of water. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp. 1999;154(1-2):167-174. doi:10.1016/S0927-7757(98)00894-2


The self-assembly of viral DNA is not transmitted into an adjacent test tube in the absence of a magnetic field

Montagnier L, Aissa J, Del Giudice E, et al. DNA waves and water. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2011;306(1):012007. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/306/1/012007


Nanostructures are formed in the solution of diluted antibodies to interferon-gamma (C7) only when exposed to the geomagnetic field.

At the same time, nanostructures are formed in solutions of C13, C30, and C50 dilutions when exposed to either the geomagnetic or hypomagnetic fields

Ryzhkina IS, Murtazina LI, Kiseleva YuV, Konovalov AI. Self-organization and physicochemical properties of aqueous solutions of the antibodies to interferon gamma at ultrahigh dilution. Dokl Phys Chem. 2015;462:110-114. doi:10.1134/S0012501615050048


Hypomagnetic conditions affect the formation of nanoassociates in NaCl solutions and the specific electrical conductivity of such solutions

Ryzhkina IS, Murtazina LI, Masagutova EM, et al. Self-organization of sodium chloride solutions in the absence and in the presence of a low-concentrated biologically active substance under normal and hypoelectromagnetic conditions. Dokl Phys Chem. 2012;446:184-doi:10.1134/S0012501612100077


Hypomagnetic conditions affect the formation of nanoassociates in phenosan potassium salt solution, but not in α-tocopherol solution. However, hypomagnetic conditions affect the specific electrical conductivity of α-tocopherol solution

Ryzhkina IS, Kiseleva YV, Murtazina LI, et al. Effect of ultralow concentrations and electromagnetic fields. Dokl Phys Chem. 2012;446:153-157. doi:10.1134/S0012501612090047


In weak magnetic fields (as well as in the absence of mechanical shaking), physical properties of the magnetized water are not transferred in the dilution sequence. The magnetized water and UHD of the magnetized water contribute to the production of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils. This does not occur if UHD is not shaken during preparation or it is prepared in weak magnetic fields.

Novikov VV, Yablokova EV, Fesenko EE. The Role of Water in the Effect of Weak Combined Magnetic Fields on Production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) by Neutrophils. Appl Sci. 2020;10(9):3326. doi:10.3390/app10093326


UHDs of antibodies change the intensity of their own IR radiation when exposed to magnetic field

Penkov NV. Influence of the Combined Magnetic Field and High Dilution Technology on the Intrinsic Emission of Aqueous Solutions. Water. 2023;15(3):599. doi:10.3390/w15030599


Magnetic field increases the spontaneous luminescence of IgG solution

Astashev ME, Serov DA, Sarimov RM, Gudkov SV. Influence of the Vibration Impact Mode on the Spontaneous Chemiluminescence of Aqueous Protein Solutions. Phys Wave Phen. 2023;31(3):189-199. doi:10.3103/S1541308X23030020


If water pre-exposed to 36 GHz electromagnetic radiation serves as a dielectric in a capacitor, then the capacitor discharge parameters change. Changes occur within the first 1-10 min after irradiation and are retained for at least tens of minutes

Fesenko EE, Gluvstein AYa. Changes in the state of water, induced by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. FEBS Lett. 1995;367(1):53-55. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(95)00506-5


If an aqueous solution pre-irradiated with 42 GHz is added to the cells, the frequency of opening/closing of potassium-dependent calcium channels changes

Fesenko EE, Geletyuk VI, Kazachenko VN, Chemeris NK. Preliminary microwave irradiation of water solutions changes their channel-modifying activity. FEBS Lett. 1995;366(1):49-52. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(95)98629-w


When a water-containing sample is exposed to GHz radiation, it starts to emit in the GHz range

V.I. Petrosyan, N.I. Sinitsyn, V.A. Elkin, G.E. Brill, D.A. Razumnik. Laser-induced radio frequency emission of biological tissues and aqueous media. Journal Biomedical Radioelectronics. 2000; 222(2):52-57.


THz radiation of water when exposed to laser

Jin Q, Yiwen E, Williams K, Dai J, Zhang X-C. Observation of broadband terahertz wave generation from liquid water. Appl Phys Lett. 2017;111:071103. doi:10.1063/1.4990824


Yiwen E, Jin Q, Zhang XC. Enhancement of terahertz emission by a preformed plasma in liquid water. Appl Phys Lett. 2019;115:101101. doi:10.1063/1.5119812


Along with the traditionally used rhythmic shaking, processing with a magnetic field affects the physical-chemical properties of water and aqueous solutions

Wang Y, Wei H, Li Z. Effect of magnetic field on the physical properties of water. Results Phys. 2020;8:262-267. doi:10.1016/j.rinp.2017.12.022

Ghaani MR, Kusalik PG, English NJ. Massive generation of metastable bulk nanobubbles in water by external electric fields. Sci Adv. 2020;6(14):eaaz0094. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aaz0094

Sankin GN, Teslenko VS. Slow variation of the electrical conductivity of water under weak permanent magnetic fields. Technical Physics. 2000;45(3):351-352. doi:10.1134/1.1259631

Dosar AA, Srivastava V. Improvement of hard water characteristics and scale formation under the effect ofpulsating electromagnetic field. In: Gupta AK, Shukla SK, Azamathulla, eds. Advances in Construction Materials and Sustainable Environment. Singapore, Springer; 2022:259-269.


Magnetized water used for the preparation of concrete affects its properties in fresh and hardened form

Divya M. Study on Effect of Magnetic Field Treated Water on Fresh and Hardened Concrete Properties. IJIRT. 2020;6(12):84-88.


Treatment of water with a pulsed magnetic field significantly reduced the initial ice nucleation temperature as well as the temperature of the end point of freezing

Zhang L, Yang Z, Deng Q. Effects of pulsed magnetic field on freezing kinetics and physical properties of water and cucumber tissue fluid. J Food Eng. 2021;288:110149. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2020.110149


Concrete produced with magnetized (4500 Gauss strength) water showed an average increase of 14.93 % in compressive strength, and its split tensile strength increased by 21.2% compared to concrete produced with unprocessed water

Kharde A, Rathi V, Kolase P. Influence of Magnetized Water on Fibre Reinforced Concrete. The International journal of analytical and experimental modal analysis. 2020;12(9):1445-1457. doi:18.0002.IJAEMA.2020.V12I9.200001.01568590054605


A review article describing the effect of a magnetic field on the physical-chemical properties of water (increased amount of dissolved oxygen, changes in UV, IR, X-ray spectra, increased refractive index, changes in conductivity, increased permittivity, increased viscosity, decreased surface tension, decreased diffusion coefficient, increased strength of concrete produced from such water).

Effect on biological systems: the activity of enzymes, the physiology of seeds and plants

Premkaisorn P, Wasupongpun W. Magnetic Field Effect on Physicochemical Properties of Water. RMUTP Research Journal. 2020;14(2):1-17.


The rate of water evaporation was estimated after exposure to different types of magnetic fields. It was shown that a single dynamic magnetic treatment of water increased the rate of its evaporation. The combination of dynamic and static magnetic treatment significantly increased the evaporation rate up to 14.3% and significantly reduced the surface tension

Yang Q-W, Wei H, Li Z. Enhancing water evaporation by combining dynamic and static treatment of magnetic field. Desalination Water Treat. 2021;216:299-305. doi:10.5004/dwt.2021.26829


Treatment of water with a magnetic field reduced calcium carbonate precipitation by 45% compared to untreated hard water. The effect of the treatment persisted for three days

Mahmoud B, Yorsa M, Nadia A. Effects of magnetic treatment on scaling power of hard waters. Sep Purif Technol. 2016;171:88-92. doi:10.1016/j.seppur.2016.07.027


The use of magnetized water improved the properties of both fresh and hardened cement-based materials. In particular, the strength of cement increased, and the amount of water needed for preparation was significantly reduced.

It is assumed that when water is processed with a magnetic field, its surface tension changes in such a way that the size of water clusters is reduced. This, in turn, contributes to the enhanced penetration of water molecules into cement particles and their faster involvement in the hydration process

Al-Safy RA. Employment of magnetic water treatment in construction. JEASD. 2021;25(4):1-12. doi:10.3127/jeasd.25.4.1


It is proposed that crushed vegetal leaves resuspended in water have an electromagnetic emission activity that can affect the structure of water in an adjacent vial without contact. Experimental data on changes in the thermodynamic properties of water have been presented

Tedeschi T. Is the living dynamics able to change the properties of water? IJDNE. 2010;5(1):60-67. doi:10.2495/DNE-V5-N1-60-67


A magnetic field (static or gradient) applied to water in a certain direction causes changes its physical properties, such as boiling point, surface tension, evaporation rate, fluidity, etc.

Kumar A, Mandal A, Sudhkar T. Designing of an Electromagnet Producing Gradient MF and Its Effect on Water Properties. In: Rakesh PK, Sharma AK, Singh I, eds. Advances in Engineering Design. Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering. Singapore, Springer; 2021.


After a magnetic field is applied to water, its surface tension and viscosity decrease, the activation energy increases, and the intramolecular energy of water decreases.

As the magnetic field strength increases, the contact angle increases.

Al-Douri Y, Hassan SM, Batoo KM, Raslan EH. Surface tension under magnetic field effect for nanoscaled water. Eur Phys J Plus. 2021;136:295. doi:10.1140/epjp/s13360-021-01287-1


Irradiation of human serum albumin (HSA) with millimeter range electromagnetic waves (mm EMW) weakened its stability and decreased the interaction force between HSA and methyl violet. Irradiation with mm EMW at water’s non-resonant frequency changed the secondary structure of HSA. On the contrary, irradiation with mm EMW at water’s resonant frequency (64.5 GHz) did not induce structural changes but weakened the protein stability

Shahinyan MA, Mikaelyan MS, Grigoryan SV, Vardevanyan PO. Study of the Effect of Mm Emw on Methyl Violet Interaction With Human Serum Albumin. Res Sq. 2022. doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-1753011/v1 (Preprint v1)