This is a digest of recent studies concerning ultrahigh dilutions and related fields.
First study presented, “Quantitative characterization of liquids flowing in geometrically controlled sub-100 nm nanofluidic channels” concerns detection and quantification of water properties in small channels. It is a well-documented fact that water in small volumes can behave differently than in large vessels.
In this study a microfluidic device was used to change the properties of water. It consisted of a few microchannels that were themselves covered by even smaller (around 100 nm) channels. Scientists were able to manufacture this device with smoother than average channels with top-down fabrication process. Apparently, when flowing through such small volumes water becomes significantly more structured and has 5 times as much viscosity as “normal” bulk water. Researchers suppose that this effect can be explained by interactions between the surface silanol groups (glass) and protic solvent molecules (water). Non-protic solvent (dimethyl sulfoxide) was used as a control and showed no signs of changes in viscosity.
Study once again draws attention to the fact that behaviour of water can be drastically different in biological systems, since interaction between solvent and smallest organic systems (for example, proteins) usually happens in nanometer volumes.
Second study “Unraveling the low-frequency triggered electromagnetic signatures in potentized homeopathic medicine” uses novel detection techniques to study high dilutions of metals. While the concentrations used cannot be called diminishingly small, scientists prove that these extremely small concentrations of metals cannot be detected used conventional (Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy) means. However, using electromagnetic resonance, scientists were able to detect and discern different metals after 6 rounds of decimal trituration.
We will most likely cover this paper in more detail further this month.
Third study “Vibrational spectra analysis of amorphous lactose in structural transformation: Water/temperature plasticization, crystal formation, and molecular mobility” might partially explain how ultrahigh dilutions of substances can work after lactose saturation. Using FT-IR spectroscopy researchers have studied peculiarities of lactose constant transformation cycles. Not only does lactose exist in a few distinct states (alpha, betta, amorphous), but they can also transform under specific conditions via a process called plasticization. Water is involved in this process, since the cycle requires water to insert itself into the lactose molecule, expose hydrogen bonding sites and then disrupt lactose structures in the sorption process. Temperature can also influence the process by increasing molecules vibration and making some transformations energetically more likely.
Studies by this scientific group could explain how changes in water behaviour can be transported onto lactose medium. These ideas could prove to be an interesting subject for our further discussions on this platform.
Fourth study called “High-concentration nanobubble generation by megasonic cavitation and atomization” covers part of a large body of research concerning nanobubbles and their application in different fields.
In this particular case, nanobubbles (NBs) were created using ultrasound and further reabsorption of produced mist. Ultrasound itself produced a large amount of NBs, however effect is considerably larger when produced mist is recaptured, leading to an almost 100-fold increase in nanoscale structures and increased NBs size uniformity.
Nanobubbles should be of interest to any person concerned by water behaviour, since they are almost always present in solutions, are hard to get rid of, but can be a product of many physical operations conducted upon solvents. It is quite possible that certain effects commonly associated with ultrahigh dilutions could be explained by higher NB count and floatation of substances on their surfaces. The body of research regarding nanobubbles is quite large and perhaps requires some further review on this cite.
Fifth study “Effect of plasma-activated water treatment on physicochemical and functional properties of whey protein isolate” touches upon on the idea that properties of water can be influenced greatly by often overlooked reactive oxygen species.
Using a relatively niche method of “plasma-activation” scientists were studying how water, saturated by oxygen radicals would interact with proteins. While study itself is mainly focused on food implications, it is quite interesting to note that results can be useful for certain cases of ultrahigh dilutions where reactive oxygen species is suspected as one of the actors. Namely, proteins did not obtain any new chemical groups and only had slight oxidation of sulfuric groups. However, their tertiary structure was significantly changed and protein did partially unfold when treated by plasma-activated water.
Sixth and the last study presented in this digest “Pre-treatment of Culture Media with an Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Field Alters Daily Response of Dinoflagellate Cultures to Space Weather Variables Similar to Direct Magnetic Exposure” presents another proof of a connection between electromagnetic fields, water-based solutions and biological systems.
Algae can be influenced by circadian cycles. While it is unquestionable that light can influence their behaviour, researcher from Portugal was studying whether the magnetic fields alone would be enough to change the behaviour of algae and not only in short circadian cycles but longer ones as well. Researcher found out that not only do the different species of algae show different responses to these magnetic fields, but also that medium irradiated by magnetic waves induced some of the same effects as direct magnetic irradiation. Specifically, cells have experienced a form of toxic shock and even showed signs of producing UV protective pigments, since higher magnetic fields are connected to UV outbursts and therefore, pigments are an evolutionary response to detected elevated possibility of hazardous UV. The irradiated medium effect proves yet again that water can have metastable structures that can be influenced by outside powers and retain for prolonged periods some of the properties that were induced in it.